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Crisis Management

Crisis management refers to the targeted and systematic preparation, handling, and post-processing of existential risks and dangers for companies, organizations, or states. An effective and efficient crisis management strategy is essential for the long-term success and security of organizations. The following will explain the most important aspects and tools of crisis management.

Definition and Significance

Crisis management (or emergency management) encompasses all measures aimed at the preparation, handling, post-processing, and prevention of crisis situations. The goal is to keep the impact of crises on affected individuals, companies, or organizations to a minimum and to return to normality as quickly as possible. Since crises often occur unexpectedly and can have serious consequences, effective crisis management is essential for the long-term success and security of organizations.

Phases of Crisis Management

Crisis management can be divided into different phases:

  1. Prevention: In this phase, potential risks and causes of crises are analyzed, evaluated, and measures for risk reduction or avoidance are developed. This also includes the implementation of early warning systems and the training of employees for crisis situations.
  2. Preparation: This involves creating a crisis management plan that establishes the specific procedures and responsibilities in the event of a crisis. The planning should be as detailed as possible and regularly reviewed and adjusted.
  3. Intervention: In the event of a crisis, the measures outlined in the plan are implemented to manage the crisis and minimize negative consequences. This also includes communication with internal and external stakeholders to build trust and prevent panic.
  4. Rehabilitation: After overcoming the acute crisis, the impacts are analyzed and measures for restoring normality are initiated. The experiences from the crisis should also be incorporated into future planning and prevention.

Tools and Methods

Various tools and methods are used in crisis management to effectively handle risks and crises:

  • Risk Analysis: The systematic collection and evaluation of risks and their potential consequences form the foundation for effective crisis management. Both internal and external risk factors should be considered.
  • Early Warning Systems: The use of early warning systems can detect potential crises early on and initiate appropriate countermeasures. These include monitoring systems for technical facilities or the analysis of economic and environmental data.
  • Crisis Team: A crisis team is an interdisciplinary group of experts who take responsibility for coordinating the measures and communication both internally and externally in a crisis. Depending on the size and structure of the organization, the crisis team can have various functions and responsibilities.
  • Crisis Communication: Open, transparent, and timely communication is critical in a crisis to maintain the trust of those affected and the public. This also includes collaboration with media and other stakeholders.
  • Emergency Plans: The creation of emergency plans for various crisis scenarios facilitates a quick and effective response in case of an emergency. Both internal and external measures and resources should be considered.

Examples of Crisis Management

The application of crisis management may be necessary in various areas and situations, for example:

  • Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, or storms
  • Technical malfunctions or accidents in industrial plants or transport systems
  • Economic crises such as insolvencies, production stoppages, or financial bottlenecks
  • Internal organizational crises such as changes in leadership, personnel issues, or conflicts
  • Social or political crises such as protests, terrorism, or wars


Effective crisis management is of great importance for the long-term success and security of companies, organizations, and states. Through systematic analysis, planning, and communication, risks can be minimized and a quick and efficient response can be made in the event of a crisis. Continuous adaptation of the strategy and the involvement of all relevant actors are crucial for the success of crisis management.